Although commercial batteries can’t reach 1 amp/cm2 such current density in a conventional battery or supercapacitor electrode would produce 10 watts/cm2 of heat. Even at low current density resistance remains the main source of heat ignition in batteries discharged or charged too quickly (e.g. hoverboards, aircraft bays, etc.). High power applications in EVs at least double the battery volume required for cooling. Electrode resistance in the best energy dense commercial batteries remains 10 ohms for 1 cm2 of electrode area. Most of that is due to electrical current resistance which is negligible in GES electrodes.
ELECTRODE RESISTANCE IN GES BATTERIES IS 10-3 OHM-CM2
That is 1/10,000th the electrode resistance compared to present batteries. Only when ohmic resistance is thus removed is it possible to mitigate ion kinetic resistance using GES’s high current density architecture. Thus, 1 amp/cm2 using these ultralow resistance electrodes produces only 10-3 watt/cm2 heat load which is why GES batteries can be charged 100 times faster, i.e. minutes instead of hours. Our unique 3-D nanoscale material architecture combines with absence of a cooling requirement to produce higher energy storage density by a factor of 3 to about 1 kWh/liter. Such are the benefits of ultralow resistance electrodes in electrochemical cells.